Assuring: informing someone that there are further reasons although one is not giving them now. Guarding: weakening one’s claims so that it is harder to show that the claims are false. Discounting: anticipating objections that might be raised to one’s claim or argument as a way of dismissing those objections.
What are discounts in logic?
An acknowledgement of a fact or possibility that might be thought to render the argument invalid or unsound, or otherwise defective. Argument 1 Although the defendant plunged the knife into the victim’s chest 36 times, she is not guilty of murder since she is insane.
What is a guarding term?
: involuntary reaction to protect an area of pain (as by spasm of muscle on palpation of the abdomen over a painful lesion)
What are critical thinking a claim and an argument?
Critical thinking means being able to make good arguments. Arguments are claims backed by reasons that are supported by evidence. … Reasons are statements of support for claims, making those claims something more than mere assertions.
What is claim in critical thinking?
You use critical thinking skills and argue your case using claims, reason, and evidence. In rhetoric and argumentation, a claim is an arguable statement—an idea that a rhetor (a speaker or writer) asks an audience to accept.
What makes an argument deductive?
A deductive argument is an argument that is intended by the arguer to be deductively valid, that is, to provide a guarantee of the truth of the conclusion provided that the argument’s premises are true. … If a valid argument has true premises, then the argument is said also to be sound.
How do you do a well crafted argument?
2.2 Well-Crafted Arguments
- Identify the premises and the conclusion.
- Eliminate excess verbiage (e.g. Discounts, repetition, assurances, hedges)
- Employ uniform language.
- Be fair and charitable in interpreting an argument.
- Do not confuse sub conclusions with final conclusions.
What are discounting terms?
Discounting is the process of determining the present value of a payment or a stream of payments that is to be received in the future. Given the time value of money, a dollar is worth more today than it would be worth tomorrow. Discounting is the primary factor used in pricing a stream of tomorrow’s cash flows.
Can an argument be valid with a false conclusion?
FALSE: A valid argument must have a true conclusion only if all of the premises are true. So it is possible for a valid argument to have a false conclusion as long as at least one premise is false.
What is an argument marker?
There are two groups of argument markers. Conclusion markers – “So”, ”Therefore”, ”Thus” or “Hence”. They indicate that the sentence that follows is the conclusion of the argument. Reason markers – ”Because”, ”For”, ”As”, ”For the reason that”, “Since”. The reasons follow after them.
What are some examples of successful arguments?
Examples of arguments: good & bad
- Nature is governed by fixed and unchangeable laws. …
- You should believe John because what he says is the truth.
- You can’t have total government control over an industry and no regulation at all at the same time. …
- You don’t want tea, therefore you must want coffee.
- All whales are mammals.
What exactly is an argument?
An argument is a line of reasoning designed to prove a point. … Regardless of length and complexity, all arguments have the same basic framework: the author states some central idea, and then presents supporting evidence, laying it out in a logical pattern. The central point of an argument is called the conclusion.
What are the three parts of an argument?
There are three stages to creating a logical argument: Premise, inference, and conclusion.
What is claim argument?
The claim is the position being taken in the argument – the thesis. … The position being takin in an argument should be demonstrated with evidence. A speaker or writer needs to use a specific claim and stay consistent with the use of that claim throughout their argument.
Is there a difference between an argument and a claim?
A claim is a statement used to support one’s argument. Multiple claims can be used to support an argument. Claims are arguable and must be supported with evidence. An argument is your main claim.
Are arguments based on faulty reasoning?
A fallacy is the use of invalid or otherwise faulty reasoning, or “wrong moves” in the construction of an argument. … The soundness of legal arguments depends on the context in which the arguments are made. Fallacies are commonly divided into “formal” and “informal”.